Nanotechnology Cure for Lung Cancer

Nanotechnology Cure for Lung Cancer

 

The primary cause of cancer-related mortality is lung cancer. It is a heterogeneous disease with a range of subgroups and treatment approaches. The features of different nanoparticles, such as polymer, liposome, quantum dot, dendrimer, and gold nanoparticles and their use in tumour tissues, offer new hope for the discovery of a cure for this disease. Furthermore, the particular use of drug delivery using nanoparticles for lung cancer treatment in preclinical research and clinical trials is covered. Have a look at them and you might find some selected research useful.

Non-small cell lung cancer targeted nanoparticles with reduced side effects fabricated by flash nanoprecipitation

  • EGFR-TKI Loaded FA-NPs: Constructed by Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP), using folate (FA) decorated dextran-b-polylactide as a polymeric stabilizer and gefitinib as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).
  • FNP Method: Provides FA-NPs with well-defined particle size, narrow size distribution, and high drug loading content through fast mixing and co-precipitation.
  • Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity: FA-NPs show efficient uptake and cytotoxicity in HCC827 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, with reduced uptake and cytotoxicity in normal cells compared to free gefitinib.
  • In Vivo Evaluation: Demonstrates selective drug delivery and accumulation of gefitinib-loaded FA-NPs, leading to enhanced inhibition of NSCLC tumors and reduced side effects on normal tissues. Read More

 

Nanoparticles advanced from preclinical studies to clinical trials for lung cancer therapy

  • Paclitaxel: Widely used anti-tumor drug, often combined with nanoparticles for lung cancer treatment.
  • Advantages of Nanoparticles: Unique benefits in targeting and treating lung cancer.
  • Rising Status: Increasing significance in the medical field due to effective treatment outcomes.
  • Material Considerations: Importance of selecting appropriate materials for nanoparticles.
  • Toxicity Control: Essential to ensure nanomaterials are harmless to humans.
  • Rational Design: Aims to increase cellular uptake, reduce cellular efflux, and achieve biocompatibility.
  • Interdisciplinary Cooperation: Requires collaboration between bioengineering, biomedicine, and other fields.
  • Future Prospects: Development of better nanoparticles promises new advancements in lung cancer treatment. Read More

Nanomedicine in Lung Cancer Immunotherapy

  • Versatile nano-platforms can be engineered with various characteristics: shape, size, elasticity, kinetics, surface modifications, and targeting.
  • Smart nanoparticles can be designed with stimuli-sensitive materials to control immunotherapeutic release specifically at tumor sites.
  • Several factors must be optimized for nanoparticles to be clinically adopted for lung cancer immunotherapy.
  • Improving the design of nanoparticle immunotherapies is crucial for better targeting specificity.
  • Enhancing the efficacy of nanoparticle immunotherapies is necessary to justify their use over conventional therapies.
  • Comprehensive studies (mechanistic, in silico, and in vivo) are needed to evaluate immune responses, nanoparticle biodistribution, toxicity, and safety. Read More

 

Application of Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Lung Cancer With Emphasis on Receptors

  • VEGFR (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor): Targets involved in tumor angiogenesis.
  • Integrin: Involved in cell adhesion and signaling, important for tumor growth and metastasis.
  • EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): Often overexpressed in lung cancer, promoting cell proliferation.
  • FR (Folate Receptor): Overexpressed in many cancers, useful for targeted drug delivery.
  • TFR (Transferrin Receptor): Overexpressed in rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells.
  • CD44: Involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and migration; often linked to cancer stem cells.
  • σ Receptor: Target for inducing cell death and apoptosis specifically in tumor tissue, sparing normal proliferating cells such as stem cells.

These receptors increase the specific binding of nanoparticles (NPs) containing drugs to cancer cells, enhancing chemotherapy efficacy. For instance, σ ligands induce significant cell death and apoptosis in tumor tissue but not in normal proliferating cells. Read More

Quantum dots as targeted doxorubicin drug delivery nanosystems in human lung cancer cells

QD–MUA–FA–DOX Nanoconjugates: Demonstrated the greatest cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and significantly inhibited the migratory potential of A549 cells.

  • Biological Screening:
    • QD–FA–DOX Nanoconjugates: Exhibited higher cytotoxicity compared to other synthesized QD samples, due to the cytotoxic effect of DOX released from the QD constructs.
    • QD–MUA–FA–DOX Nanoconjugates: Most cytotoxic against A549 lung cancer cells, with no significant effect on NIH/3T3 normal cells, confirming FA receptors (FARs) as molecular targets.
  • In Vitro Scratch Assay: Showed significant inhibition of A549 cell migration after treatment with QD–MUA–FA–DOX.
  • Genotoxicity:
    • All nanoconjugates induced significantly more DNA breaks at IC50 compared to untreated cells. Read More

 

 

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Credit and Source: nature, NCBI, frontiers etc

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