Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) : Causes &  Symptoms

Anyone occasionally experiences nagging concerns. Obsessions are worries that control a person’s every thought. Obsessions are unwelcome or bothersome urges, ideas, or images that recur repeatedly in the mind. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sufferers frequently realize that their obsessions are inventions of their own thoughts, yet they are unable to control, reject, or free themselves of them.

Those who have OCD frequently engage in various rituals in an effort to control or lessen their obsessions. Many people follow rituals or have preferred methods. Yet, rituals may “stick” and endure for hours for those who have OCD. In this context, rituals are referred to as “compulsions.”


Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a term used to describe obsessions and compulsions that are out of control.

There are two different types of symptoms, as the name implies:


Obsession : An undesired thought, image, or urge that recurs frequently in the mind is referred to as an.

Compulsions :  A recurring behaviours or rituals carried out to ease tension that are hard or impossible to break free from.


One in every 40 adults has OCD, an anxiety illness. OCD is a condition that affects both men and women equally across the globe. OCD typically develops over time. Two-thirds of OCD sufferers first experience symptoms in adolescence or the early stages of adulthood.



What brings on OCD?


Why some people get OCD is a mystery. It is believed to arise as a result of a combination of hereditary and environmental factors, like many mental health diseases. There are numerous hypotheses regarding the etiology of OCD, such as:


Genetic: One’s likelihood of developing OCD may be increased if they have a first-degree relative who has the disorder. It’s conceivable that some genes predispose people to OCD.   


Biological : Brain anomalies that are biological, functional, structural, or chemical are currently being studied. Serotonin, the neurotransmitter that transmits information to the brain, has some connections to erratic levels.

Environmental — According to some study, OCD behaviors may be acquired after a stressful incident, such as contracting a serious illness due to contaminated food. OCD routines can even be picked up from other people, such as an OCD parent.


Children with OCD


Even while OCD’s early symptoms sometimes present in childhood, they frequently appear in adolescence.


Young persons with OCD, including children, may experience the following complications:

  • Low self-esteem
  • Disturbed schedules
  • Having trouble finishing coursework
  • Physical sickness brought on by stress, such as difficulty making or keeping friends and other relationships


Males may be more likely than females to have OCD while they are young. But by adulthood, it strikes both sexes equally frequently.



What signs or symptoms indicate OCD?


OCD symptoms might range widely, yet they frequently have some patterns in common.

Obsessions (thoughts)

Some common obsessions are:


  • Fear of illness or germs that could cause contamination, which could result in avoiding hand contact or using the restroom, as well as an excessive urge to wash and clean
  • Fear of harming others, such as your own children, or hurting someone in a traffic accident Obsession with order, or with according to patterns
  • Erotic or obscene ideas or representations
  • You’re worried that you neglected to lock the doors or switch off the appliances.
  • Concern for moral or religious problems.


Compulsions (behaviours)


Common compulsive behaviours include:

  • Excessive hand washing, showering, or household cleaning owing to a fear of germs might cause hand dermatitis.
  • An obsessive urge to constantly check objects, such as taps, locks, or light switches, out of a desire to avoid injury or damage or to keep things in order and symmetry.
  • Counting things or things on a walk, such as pavement stones
  • Hair loss and hair pulling
  • Selecting skin
  • Collecting random items like trash mail and newspapers
  • Excessive prayer
  • Repeated requests for others to reassure you

Several actions that aren’t on this list could nonetheless be signs of OCD. Instead of the behaviour itself, the compulsive aspect of the behaviour is crucial for diagnosing OCD.


OCD and other conditions that are closely related include:

  • Excessive worry over a bodily component and the belief that it is abnormal in some way are symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder.
  • Trichotillomania, or the compulsive ripping out of one’s hair hypochondriasis, or the worry and obsession with getting sick physically
  • Excessive collecting
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • OCD patients are also more prone to depression and other anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety.


Key points about OCD

  • OCD is a widespread illness. It results in recurring unsettling thoughts and compulsive behaviors meant to reduce worry.
  • The rituals take over daily life and cause disruptions.
  • Events that are stressful might start or worsen OCD episodes.
  • You might or might not be able to understand the unreasonable ideas or actions.
  • Drugs and counseling can help shorten the duration of obsessive actions or mental patterns. Both are most effective during treatment.



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